We are mainly interested in the postpartum placenta. We think it is an underused organ. Our research began as an attempt to understand why nonhuman mammalian mothers ingest the afterbirth at parturition. We have already found a substance in placenta and amniotic fluid (POEF, present in human afterbirth) that, when ingested by rats, enhances the central analgesic activity of delta and kappa opioids. This will possibly be useful medicinally to manage pain and manage addiction in humans. We are looking for other researchers who are interested in placenta and amniotic fluid proteomes and possible uses of their contents.